Programming Language

What is a progamming language ?

A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. The term programming language usually refers to high-level languages, such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada, and Pascal.

In Simple terms,

programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output (end result). Programming languages generally consist of instructions for a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that implement specific algorithms.

Types of Programming : –

  1. Machine Language
  2. Assembly Language
  3. High Level Language

Machine language is a collection of binary digits (0 or 1) or bits that the computer reads and interprets. Machine language is the only language a computer is capable of understanding.

Assembly language is a low-level programming language used to interface with computer hardware. Assembly language uses structured commands as substitutions for numbers allowing humans to more easily read the code versus looking at binary. Although easier to read than binary. It is also known as assembly or ASL.

Highlevel language is a programming language such as C, FORTRAN, or Pascal that enables a programmer to write programs that are more or less independent of a particular type of computer. Such languages are considered highlevel because they are closer to human languages say natural language and further from machine languages.

 

Types of high level language :

  1. Procedural Language
  2. Event-driven languages
  3. Visual Language
  4. Object Oriented Language
  5. Mark Up Language
  6. Functional Language

Procedure Language : 

A sequence of instructions is run. There is a starting point and a logical order to the instructions to be executed, until the end point is reached.

Procedural languages use program control constructs (If..Then, Loops, Subroutines and Functions)

Ex : C, PASCAL, BASIC, etc.

Event-driven languages :

A program that waits for events such as the clicking of the mouse or the press of a key on a keyboard.

When an event occurs, it is processed using a defined sequence of instructions called an event handler.

Useful for control programs where events such as readings from sensors are used to control devices.

Ex : Visual Basic, C++, Javascript, etc.

Visual Language :

Allow the programmer to manipulate objects visually on a form, setting their layout and properties. The underlying program code is automatically generated.

Used for creating Windows (GUI) applications.

Ex : Visual Basic, Visual C++, etc.

OOP (Object-Orientated Language) : 

A programming language where objects are defined.

Objects have Properties and Methods.

Properties can be set initially or changed at run-time.

Methods are things that the object can do.

It is a programming language model organized around objects rather than “actions” and data rather than logic.

Object-oriented programming takes the view that what we really care about are the objects we want to manipulate rather than the logic required to manipulate them.

Ex : C++, Java, etc.

Mark Up Language :

Special coding instructions are used to indicate style and layout of text and other elements.

Widely used for creating web pages on the Internet.

Ex : HTML, XML, ASP, etc.

Functional Language :

Functional languages treat procedures like mathematical functions and allow them to be processed like any other data in a program.

This allows a much higher and more rigorous level of program construction.

Functional languages also allow variables—symbols for data that can be specified and changed by the user as the program is running—to be given values only once.

This simplifies programming by reducing the need to be concerned with the exact order of statement execution, since a variable does not have to be re-declared, or restated, each time it is used in a program statement.

 

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